Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (Summary) | 23 November 2012

Cardiovascular  disease (CVD)is a major cause of disability and premature death throughout the world. The underlying pathology is atherosclerosis, which develops over many years and is usually advanced by the time symptoms occur, generally in middle age.

Acute coronary events (heart attacks) and cerebrovascular events (strokes) frequently occur suddenly, and are often fatal before medical care can be given.



Unhealthy lifestyle and its related diseases are the main cause of CVD including:

 –       Obesity

–       High Blood Pressure

–       Diabetes Mellitus

–       Smoking

–       High Cholesterol

–       Sedentary Lifestyle

–       Stress

–       Others that cannot be modified:

  • Age (>40 years old)
  • Man
  • Family history of CVD


How to prevent cvd?

Risk factor modification can reduce clinical events and premature death in people with established cardiovascular disease as well as in those who are at high cardiovascular risk due to one or more risk factors.


–       All individuals should be strongly encouraged to reduce total fat and saturated fat intake. Trans fatty acids intake should be reduced as much as possible or eliminated and most dietary fat should be polyunsaturated or monounsaturated.

–       All individuals should be strongly encouraged to reduce daily salt intake by at least one third and, if possible, to <5 g or <90 mmol per day.)

–       All individuals should be encouraged to eat at least 400 g a day of a range of fruits and vegetables as well as whole grains and pulses.


All individuals should be strongly encouraged to take at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity (e.g. brisk walking) a day, through leisure time, daily tasks and work-related physical activity.


All nonsmokers should be encouraged not to start smoking. All smokers should be strongly encouraged to quit smoking. It is suggested that those who use other forms of tobacco be advised to stop


All individuals who are overweight or obese should be encouraged to lose weight through a combination of a reduced-energy diet (dietary advice) and increased physical activity.


Individuals who take more than 3 units of alcohol per day should be advised to reduce alcohol consumption or eliminated.

(One unit (drink) = half pint of beer/lager (5 % alcohol), 100 ml of wine (10 % alcohol), spirits 25 ml (40% alcohol)).


All individuals with blood pressure at or above 160/100 mmHg, Should see the doctor to have drug treatment and specific lifestyle advice.


All individuals with total cholesterol at or above 8 mmol/l (320 mg/dl) should see doctor to follow a lipid-lowering diet and give a statin to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.


Individuals with persistent fasting blood glucose >6 mmol/l despite diet control should see doctor to have drug treatment.


See doctor to take anti platelet drug or don’t. 

  • Hormone replacement, vitamins B, C, E and folic acid supplements are not recommended for reduction of cardiovascular risk.

Sumber: Prevention of heart attack – http://wh/qlibdoc.who.intpublications/20079789241547178_eng./pdf


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